"Malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by a parasite. People with malaria often experience flu-like symptoms including fever and chills. In 2010 an estimated 219 million cases worldwide," according to the CDC.
"The Malaria Atlas Project brings together researchers based around the world with expertise in a wide range of disciplines from public health to mathematics, geography and epidemiology. We work together to generate new and innovative methods of mapping malaria risk. Ultimately our goal is to produce a comprehensive range of maps and estimates that will support effective planning of malaria control at national and international scales".
The base map illustrates the distribution of vivax malaria worldwide. It illustrates the estimated proportion of the general population that are infected with P. vivax at any one time, averaged over the 12 months of 2010. The stable transmission regions range from 0% to >7%. For example if a region has a 7% probability indicated this means that there is a 7% chance that someone within this 1 km squared region has contracted malaria within the year 2010.
The Duffy-negative layer attached to this dataset can be turned on by tapping "Layers," toggling it on and turning down the transparency to view both images at once, where a relationship between vivax and Duffy-negative can be seen.
About the layer: Duffy is one of many human blood groups. If a person exhibits a genetic mutation and does not have the Duffy protein, they are considered to have a Duffy-negativity. Individuals with Duffy-negativity tend to be resistant to vivax malaria which is one of five major human transmissible types of malaria. Duffy-negativity is common in African populations but is found in much smaller rates in other groups.
This map was constructed based on the distribution of common Duffy-negativity data. The darker the blue on the map layer, the higher the prevalence of Duffy-negative, white means 0-10% whereas the darkest blue indicates 98-100% of the population carries the mutation. Individuals with Duffy-negativity tend to be resistant to vivax malaria; therefore the higher the Duffy-negative occurrence, the lower the probability of vivax malaria.
For more information on the Malaria Atlas Project, please visit the MAP website.
Low estimates for vivax malaria in local African populations
Low estimates of vivax in Africa likely due to a genetic mutation called Duffy-negative, which has been known to cause resistance to vivax malaria and is common in African populations, illustrated by the Duffy-negative layer
The darkest blue on the Duffy-negative layer indicates 98-100% of the population carries the mutated gene
White on the Duffy-negative layer indicates 0-10% prevalence