Climate Model: Temperature Change (CCSM b1) - 1870 - 2100

Climate Model: Temperature Change (CCSM b1) - 1870 - 2100 thumbnail


"The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established by WMO and UNEP to assess scientific, technical and socio- economic information relevant for the understanding of climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation. It is open to all members of the UN and of WMO." - from In an effort to better visualize the future of climate change, the IPCC releases assessment reports on the current state of the atmosphere and what the future could hold. Models from various atmospheric and oceanic organizations are included in these reports in order to establish a broad understanding of the science. Data from three of the IPCC models following temperature change from 1870 - 2100 have been formatted for Science On a Sphere®.

The models available on SOS are the Climate Model 2.1, developed by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory; the Community Climate System Model 3.0, developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research; and the Hadley Centre HadCM3, developed by the United Kingdom Meteorology Office. All three models have similar forcing agents. For the past data they use the 20th Century Model 20C3M, which takes into account the historical record of greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosol concentrations, volcanic aerosol optical depths, and historical solar irradiation. For the future, there are two variations. Each model is also available using the more ecologically friendly SRES B1 scenario, which assumes:

  • Rapid economic growth as in A1, but with rapid changes towards a service and information economy.
  • Population rising to 9 billion in 2050 and then declining as in A1.
  • Reductions in material intensity and the introduction of clean and resource efficient technologies.
  • An emphasis on global solutions to economic, social and environmental stability.

In addition, each model is also available using the less ecologically friendly A1B scenario.

Even though all of the models use the same inputs, their results vary because each of the three models have differing dynamics and physics parameterizations. In all of the models for the A1B scenario, CO2 production increases until it reaches 717ppm in the year 2100. For the B1 scenario, CO2 production increases until it reaches 621 ppm in the year 2100. The temperatures displayed in the datasets are all a comparison to temperatures in 2000. Blue tones on the visualization represent temperatures cooler than those in 2000, while red tones represent temperatures warmer than those in 2000.

In addition to the six model runs, there is also a dataset that has frames from the A1B and B1 scenario as modeled by GFDL for 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100 in order to compare and contrast the differences between the two scenarios called IPCC GFDL Temp Comparison.

Notable Features

Model and ScenarioGlobal Mean WarmingNorth America Mean Warming
GFDL B12.7F (1.5C)4.32F (2.4C)
GFDL A1B5.22F (2.9C)8.82F (4.9C)
CCSM B12.52F (1.4C)3.24F (1.8C)
CCSM A1B4.86F (2.7C)7.56F (4.2C)
HAD B13.42F (1.9C)5.4F (3.0C)
HAD A1B6.66F (3.7C)10.26F (5.7C)
Note: Global Mean Warming and North America Mean Warming are the difference between
decadal averages for 1990-2000 and 2090-2100.

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